9-line access access management access point accessibility ADA air quality alignment amenity antiplanner atlanta BART benchmark BID bike Blogs boston branded bus corridors brookings brt bus Bus Rapid Transit BYU capacity car pool car pool lane cars central link Centrality certification commuter rail condo congestion congestion pricing connections consistency coverage crossings CRT cycling DART dedicated dedicated right of way density denver depreciation developers development economics efficiency Envision Utah equity eugene exclusive extension FAQ favela Federal Funding Flex Bus florida free fare zone freeways frequent network frontrunner frontunner Gallivan garden cities gas prices geotagging goat Google grade-separation Granary District growth headway heavy rail hedonic High Speed Rail history housing housing affordability housing bubble housing prices HOV income infill innovative intersections intensity ITS junk science LA land use Land Value Economics LEED legacy city light rail linear park location LRT lyft M/ART malls mapping maps metrics metro MetroRail missoula mixed mixed traffic mixed-traffic mobile mode choice Mode Share multi-family MXD neighborhood networks news NIMBY office online op-ed open letter Operations parking parking meters peak travel pedestrian environment phasing Photomorphing planning Portland property property values Provo proximity quality_transit rail railvolution rant rapid rapid transit RDA real estate redevelopment reliability research retail Ridership ridesharing right of way roadway network ROW salt lake city san diego schedule schedule span seattle separated service branding shuttle silver line single family SLC SLC transit master plan slums smartphone snow sprawl standing stop spacing streetcar streetscape streetscaping subdivision Sugarhouse Sugarhouse Streetcar Tacoma taxi technology tenure termini time-separation TOD townhouse traffic signal tram transit transit agency transit networks transit oriented development Transit Planning transponder transportation travel time TRAX trip planning trolley tunnel uber university of utah urban design urban land UTA UTA 2 Go Trip Planner utah Utah County Utah Transit Authority value vmt walking distance web welfare transit Westside Connector WFRC wheelchairs zoning

Friday, September 18, 2015

Human Transport

For human transport, the relationship between time space and distance is fixed: S=D/T. Travel time can be reduced by increasing speeds, but total energy output remains a limiting factor; and higher speeds are less efficient. Prior to the advent of vehicular transit, travel speed was nearly constant. With speed constant, it is only possible to increase the distance of residence from work by increasing the amount of travel time. With wage labor, the combination of hours worked and necessary hours for rest provided a hard limit on the amount of travel time available. Thus, any efforts to de-congest a city (to lower overall activity density) are reliant on vehicular transportation, for which travel speed is not constant. (Vehicular transportation also provides a limited conversion of travel time in resting time). The adoption of mass transit in urban places did not initially occur to limitations in space (as is currently the case), but rather due to limitations on total human energy output. The 'massification' of transportation is more efficient than individual transportation. It also facilitated the replacement of human bio-energy with that from fossil fuels.