9-line access access management access point accessibility ADA air quality alignment amenity antiplanner atlanta BART BID bike Blogs boston branded bus branded buses brookings brt bus Bus Rapid Transit BYU capacity car pool cars central link Centrality certification commuter rail condo congestion congestion pricing connections consistency coverage crossings CRT cycling DART dedicated dedicated right of way density denver depreciation developers development economics efficiency Envision Utah equity eugene exclusive extension FAQ favela Federal Funding Flex Bus florida free fare zone freeways Frequent Transit Network frontrunner frontunner Gallivan garden cities gas prices geotagging goat Google grade-separation Granary District growth headway heavy rail hedonic High Speed Rail history housing housing affordability housing bubble housing prices HOV income infill innovative intersections intensity ITS junk science LA land use LEED legacy city light rail linear park location LRT lyft M/ART malls mapping maps metrics metro MetroRail missoula mixed mixed traffic mixed-traffic mobile mode choice Mode Share multi-family MXD neighborhood networks news NIMBY office online op-ed open letter Operations parking parking meters peak travel pedestrian environment phasing Photomorphing planning Portland property property values Provo proximity quality_transit rail railvolution rant rapid rapid transit RDA real estate redevelopment reliability research retail Ridership ridesharing right of way roadway network ROW salt lake city san diego schedule schedule span seattle separated shuttle silver line single family SLC SLC transit master plan slums smartphone snow sprawl standing stop spacing streetcar streetscape streetscaping subdivision subsidy Sugarhouse Sugarhouse Streetcar Tacoma taxi technology tenure termini time-separation TOD townhouse traffic signal tram transit transit networks transit oriented development Transit Planning transponder transportation travel time TRAX trip planning trolley tunnel uber university of utah urban design urban economics urban land UTA UTA 2 Go Trip Planner utah Utah County Utah Transit Authority vmt walking distance web welfare transit Westside Connector WFRC wheelchairs zoning

Monday, February 24, 2014

Tour-based models and Walking

Only recently have travel models advanced to tour based models that recognize that all trips are not made from the home, but that people 'run errands', and combine several trips into a single tour. This has implications not only for automobiles but for all modes.

Every trip begins and ends with a walk. It is not always a very long walk, but it always exists. Every transit trips begins with a walk to the station/stop. And ends with a walk from the station/stop to the final destination. For automobiles, the initial walk distances is typically very short, as most people park closely to where they live. But the walk after parking, across the parking lot, or out of the parking garage, may be quite long. In both cases, the portion of trip spent in-vehicle is only part of the journey.

It would be better if each portion of that journey was considered a trip on a tour. Transportation models ought to consider pedestrian trips, and pedestrian scale transportation networks will require further developments in this area. Considering only the in-vehicle time ignores the significance of the walking portion of these trips, and the significance of the walking environment.

Much of the research on roads is on the effect of pavement quality on travel speed. There should likewise be extensive research on the effects of the quality of the pedestrian environment on both the likeliness to walk and the distances walked. This research will have two strands: The first geometric, measuring network qualities such as connectedness and the directness of paths through the network; the second qualitative, measuring the quality of the travel path.

Secondly, for development considerations, it would be better to consider each portion of the trip (Walk, Vehicle, Walk) as a separate trip. Specifically for purposes of retail gravitation. If the vehicle access point (station/stop/garage) is a trip end, then centers where a greater number of trip ends concentrate should be more attractive. Where someone catches a train (or keeps their car) may vary by virtue of what else is there.